September 1991 Moscow recognizes Lithuania's independence. Soon after, Lithuania joins the United Nations and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.
1992 A constitution is adopted and elections take place, with the Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party (formerly the Communist Party) taking the majority.
1993 The former Communist Party chief, Algirdas Brazauskas, is elected president.
1994 NATO's Partnership for Peace Program accepts Lithuania, along with Poland.
December 1995 Lithuania's two largest banks collapse. Two days before the crisis, Prime Minister Adolfas Slezevicius withdraws his funds from one of the banks.
February 1996 The Independent (London) reports, "Lithuania's Prime Minister, Adolfas Slezevicius, was forced out of office yesterday for his part in the country's biggest financial scandal since it regained independence in 1991. By 94 votes to 26, the parliament in Vilnius approved a decree, issued by President Algirdas Brazauskas on 29 January, which dismissed Mr Slezevicius. Mr Slezevicius, who like the President is a reformed Communist, fell into trouble last December when it was discovered that he had withdrawn his entire personal savings from one of Lithuania's biggest banks just two days before it collapsed. It also appeared that the Innovation Bank had been paying him a higher interest rate than ordinary depositors."
1998 Exiled American Valdas Adamkus is elected president.
1999 Surrounding the sale of a state-run oil company to American firm Williams International, Prime Minister Rolandas Paksas resigns, making Andrius Kubilius the new premier.
2000 During the general election, Paksas is re-elected prime minister under the Liberal Union.
July 2001 Brazauskas becomes prime minister following elections, vowing to advance EU and NATO accession.
November 2002 The NATO Summit in Prague lays the groundwork for entrance to the alliance with a formal invitation.
December 2002 The Copenhagen EU Summit invites Lithuania to join in 2004.
January 2003 Rolandas Paksas becomes president.
May 2003 The BBC reports, more than 91 percent of Lithuanian voters favor EU accession.
March 2004 NATO welcomes Lithuania to the alliance.
April 2004 Parliament impeaches President Paksas following allegations that he is connected with Russian organized crime and illegal arms trading. He also is found guilty of promising Russian businessman Yuri Borisov a role as an advisor in his government in exchange for a campaign donation. These associations are deemed a national security threat by the Constitutional Court. He is impeached on charges of violating his oath of office as well as the constitution.
May 2004 Lithuania, along with nine other countries, joins the EU.
June 2004 Lithuania re-elects Valdas Adamkus, the exiled American, to the presidency. He wins a tight race against Kazimira Prunskiene, who has the backing of recently ousted Prime Minister Paksas.
October 2004 The Labor Party, led by Russian businessman Viktor Uspaskich, secures 39 seats in parliament, leaving it unclear which coalition holds the balance of power. This victory worries some citizens who fear increasing Russian influence in the country, despite recent ties to Western organizations such as the EU and NATO. According to Freedom House, following the elections, three deputies are fined for vote buying.
January 2005 Foreign Minister Antanas Valionis reveals that he is a former KGB agent. Valionis is highly regarded in Lithuania for his success at bringing Lithuania closer to the West and away from ties to the former Soviet Union, with the country's acceptance to the EU and NATO in the past year. Parliament inquires further into his past and the backgrounds of two other senior officials.
June 2005 Labor Party leader businessman Viktor Uspaskich resigns as economics minister following allegations of ethical violations in his private business dealings.
May 2006 President Adamkus announces lack of trust in two senior government officials. This prompts the withdrawal of the Labor Party from the cabinet. The two ministers are investigated over allegations of illegal party financing. The BBC reports, Prime Minister Brazauskas resigns, stating that he "cannot see any possibility of continuing his work."
July 2006 The president nominates Gediminas Kirkilas to replace Bazauskas as prime minister , and the Conservative Party takes the majority.
February/March 2007 Local elections take place without much controversy, with the Social Democratic Party and Homeland Union taking the most seats. Freedom House reports, "In March, the Central Election Commission took the unprecedented step of canceling the results in two districts because of reported electoral violations, including vote buying, which it found to have influenced the results. However, a court order two weeks later invalidated the decision due to lack of evidence."
May 2007 State Security Department (SSD) Chief Arvydas Pocius is dismissed by parliament following unsubstantiated accusations he made regarding select SSD staff members having connections to the KGB.
September 2007 A Lithuanian research group launches a website allowing public access to KGB documents . Also this month, former Labor Party leader Viktor Uspaskich is arrested on charges of election fraud as he returned from his native Russia.
May 2008 Lithuanian Parliament members approve of the EU's Lisbon Treaty , which gives more power to the EU governing structure in order to facilitate decision making within the growing union of countries.