May 1991 The military regime led by Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam is removed by the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), a coalition of rebel forces. A provisional government is set up.
August 1992 The government establishes the Special Prosecutor's Office to investigate human rights abuses and corruption committed during the Mengistu regime. In February 1993, the government restores the right of habeas corpus.
December 1994 A new constitution is adopted. The constitution establishes a democratic system of government and guarantees individual freedoms.
May-June 1995 National and regional elections, boycotted by most opposition groups, result in a landslide victory for the EPRDF. Negasso Gidada becomes president when his predecessor, Meles Zenawi, assumes the post of prime minister in August.
December 1996 For the first time, private newspapers are allowed to cover a major government press conference.
September 1997 Over 260 officials in the Addis Ababa government are fired on charges of bribery, nepotism, embezzlement and incompetence.
December 1998 A World Bank anti-corruption report finds that corruption in Ethiopia is mostly petty in nature, existing at the interface between the civil service and the public, where there is a lack of formal rules.
March 1999 Over 160 domestic and international NGOs sign a code of conduct establishing standards for various areas including gender equality, ethical integrity, transparency and accountability. The signatories also form a committee to hear and decide matters involving violations of the code.
June 1999 After a 7-year effort, the Ethiopian Human Rights Council (EHRCO), a human rights watchdog with members and support committees around the world, receives legal status as an NGO.
December 1999 The Ministry of Information and Culture shuts down 12 newspapers for failing to maintain the legally required bank balance of 10,000 birr (US$1,250) at the time of their annual license renewal.
March 2000 Former Prime Minister Tamirat Layne is convicted of embezzlement, corruption and abuse of office and is sentenced to 18 years in prison.
June 2000 Ethiopia and Eritrea sign a cease-fire agreement in their two-year border dispute, but violence and tension between the two countries persist, despite UN peacekeeping efforts.
May 2001 Eighteen prominent government officials and businessmen are arrested on charges of embezzling millions of dollars from the government.
July 2001 Four senior members of the governing coalition from the Oromo region are suspended for alleged corruption, nepotism and abuse of power.
August 2001 Opposition politician Abdifetah Mursel Shel is killed by a landmine while campaigning in the parliamentary elections.
January 2002 The newly-established Federal Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission charges five current and former senior executives of the state-owned Commercial Bank of Ethiopia with issuing illegal loans.
October 2003 Araya Tesfa Mariam, a journalist for a private newspaper, alleges three federal police officers severely beat him for refusing to disclose his sources.
November 2003 The Ethiopian Free Press Journalists Association, a vocal critic of the government's strict policy toward the media, is banned and later has its entire executive board replaced by the government. The ban is eventually overturned by a court, but the government defies the court's ruling.
December 2003 Ethiopia signs (but has not yet ratified) the U.N. Convention against Corruption.
May 2005 Prime Minister Meles Zenawi and his EPRDF party retain power in bitterly-contested elections that trigger violent protests in May and November. Allegations of election fraud and government violence against the opposition prompt international donors to suspend or cut back aid to Ethiopia.
November 2005 Ethiopian security forces arrest opposition leaders in response to the public protests. They detain tens of thousands of civilians for up to three months, including journalists and human rights advocates. The U.S. State Department reports, more than 100 members of the Coalition for Unity and Democracy (CUD) remain imprisoned after 2007.
December 2005 The U.S. State Department reports, "The government charges 131 people opposition leaders, civil society leaders and media representatives with capital offenses such as 'outrages against the constitution.'" It isn't until the summer of 2007 that these detainees are pardoned and released from prison.
January 2006 The Committee to Protect Journalists reports, British journalist Anthony Mitchell is expelled from the country, accused by the government of "tarnishing the image of the nation" with his reporting.
Also in January, the government releases 11,000 persons detained as part of the November 2005 anti-government demonstrations.
March 2006 The Ethiopian High Court drops charges against 18 defendants, who, along with over 100 other journalists, opposition politicians and human rights activists, were charged with treason, incitement to violence and various other offenses in the aftermath of the controversial 2005 elections.
April 2006 As part of media regulation efforts, the government grants private licenses to two radio stations in the capital, the first of their kind.
May 2006 The BBC reports, "Six political parties and armed groups form an opposition alliance, the Alliance for Freedom and Democracy, at a meeting in the Netherlands."
November 2006 A UN report names Ethiopia in violation of a 1992 arms embargo on Somalia. The report alleges that the Ethiopian government has been supplying arms to Ethiopia's interim government.
2007 During the year, two soldiers are convicted and sentenced to 14 years each for raping seven women in the Guduru District. Also during the year, the government fails to disclose investigation into police taking bribes.
January 2007 Mengistu Haile Mariam is sentenced to life in prison after being convicted of genocide. This ends the 12-year trial of the former dictator.
According to the Ethiopian Human Rights Council (EHRCO), CUD election observer, Yohannes Woldu disappears after reportedly facing harassment threats by security forces following the 2006 elections.
More election related intimidation is reported after two police officers beat and shoot Tesfaye Taddese to death. Taddese was connected to the CUD during the 2005 elections. His autopsy shows he lost teeth and an eye as a result of being shot. The officers involved remain under investigation after the arrest.
March 2007 The opposition party United Ethiopian Democratic Forces (UEDF) reports that party member Degaga Gebissa is taken from home by the police and then shot and killed. The police refuse to allow an autopsy or to provide any information about the death to UEDF officials.
March 2007 Police forces beat, torture and kill Tsegaye Ayele Yigzaw from the opposition Ethiopian Democratic Party (EDP), who was arrested and interrogated in 2006. Yigzaw remains in custody past the legal limit and is denied food and water in order to force a confession.
May 2007 Police arrest and torture 37 CUD members suspected of carrying links to the outlawed Ethiopian Patriotic Front (EPF).
Soldiers detain three New York Times journalists reporting on the conflict happening in the Ogaden region and hold them for five days.
July 2007 Jima University Professor Befekadu Bulti Merri goes missing since he was arrested and accused of possessing illegal weapons. Merri's disappearance is one of at least seven politically motivated disappearances the U.S. State Department reports in Ethiopia for the year. It occurs one week after Ethiopian authorities detain Girma Tesfaye Ayana, a small business owner on the same charge. Like Merri, Ayana goes missing.
September 2007 After months of police harassment, parliamentary representative, Wegayehu Dejene files a regional complaint alleging that the police beat him and his family. No action is taken on his complaint.
The UEDF reports that former Parliament candidate Ismail Blatta disappears after reporting harassment and threats from security forces following the 2005 elections.
January 2008 The government blocks licensing of what would be the nation's first independent political newspapers since the 2005 post-election political unrest. Despite meeting all legal licensing prerequisites Lualawi and Habesha Amharic weeklies fail to launch.
March 2008 The Committee to Protect Journalists reports, two newspaper editors and a publisher are arrested and held for two weeks for reprinting a letter that criticizes the Ethiopian Education Minister's proposal to ban school prayers in public institutions. Editors Ezedin and Ibrahim Mohamed and Publisher Maria Kadim of Al Kidus stand charged with libel after Elias Redman, vice president of the Ethiopian Islamic Affairs Supreme Council, denies authorship.